Voltage References

Voltage references are electronic devices that provide a fixed output voltage. They provide a constant voltage regardless of external factors. This includes the load on the device, temperature or fluctuations in the power supply. Learn more in our Complete Guide to Voltage References.

Voltage references have different characteristics depending on their purpose. Voltage references used in laboratory applications are designed to have extremely high precision and accuracy, whereas those used as regulators for computer power supplies are much cheaper but less precise.

There are many different kinds of voltage references, generally categorised by type, tolerance, rated voltage, reference voltage and rated current. The most common tolerances are ±2%, ±1% and ±0.5%, but voltage references are available even up to ±40%.

Voltage reference ICs come in a standard semiconductor package, such as PDIP, SO, SOIC and SOT-23. The pin count may also be combined with the package type, for example SO-8.

Types of voltage references

  • Two-terminal shunt voltage reference
  • Three-terminal series voltage reference
  • Band-gap voltage reference
  • Low noise voltage reference
  • Micropower voltage reference

What are voltage references used for?

Voltage references can be used for a variety of different precision measurement and control systems such as power supplies in personal computers and analogue-to-digital converters. They are also used in scientific applications and in medical equipment where voltage variations need to be tested regularly. Voltage references are also used in battery-powered devices.


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Description Price Nominal Voltage Package Type Reference Type Initial Accuracy Mounting Type Topology Maximum Output Current Maximum Input Voltage Minimum Output Voltage Maximum Output Voltage Pin Count Line Regulation Load Regulation Dimensions
RS Stock No. 809-5374
Mfr. Part No.TL431AILP
$1.008
Each (In a Pack of 5)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Adjustable ±1.0 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA - - 36 V 3 - - 5.21 x 4.19 x 5.34mm
RS Stock No. 162-4379
Mfr. Part No.TLE2426ILP
$2.183
Each (In a Bag of 1000)
units
- TO-92 Adjustable - Through Hole Series 20mA 40 V 1.98 V 20.2 V 3 - - 4.83 x 3.43 x 3.68mm
RS Stock No. 527-984
Mfr. Part No.TL431AILP
$0.726
Each (In a Pack of 25)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Adjustable ±1.0 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 3 - - 4.83 x 3.43 x 3.68mm
RS Stock No. 526-773
Mfr. Part No.TLE2426ILP
$4.376
Each (In a Pack of 5)
units
- TO-92 Adjustable - Through Hole Series 20mA 40 V 1.98 V 20.2 V 3 - - 4.83 x 3.43 x 3.68mm
RS Stock No. 121-8773
Mfr. Part No.LM4040AIZ-2.5/NOPB
$1.949
Each (In a Box of 1800)
units
2.5V TO-92 Fixed ±0.1 % Through Hole Shunt 15mA - - - 3 - 6 mV 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.2mm
RS Stock No. 534-2876
Mfr. Part No.LM385Z-2.5/NOPB
$1.33
Each
units
2.5V TO-92 Fixed ±3 % Through Hole Shunt 20mA - - - 3 - 20 mV 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.2mm
RS Stock No. 533-5806
Mfr. Part No.LM336Z-5.0/NOPB
$1.55
Each
units
5V TO-92 Precision 1% Through Hole Shunt 10mA - 4.8 V 5.2 V 3 - 20 mV 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.2mm
RS Stock No. 534-3037
Mfr. Part No.LM4040AIZ-2.5/NOPB
$5.68
Each
units
2.5V TO-92 Fixed ±0.1 % Through Hole Shunt 15mA - - - 3 - 6 mV 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.2mm
RS Stock No. 122-0333
Mfr. Part No.TLV431BFTA
$0.344
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
1.24 - 18V SOT-23 Adjustable ±0.5 % Surface Mount Shunt 20mA 20 V 1.24 V 18 V 3 - - 3.04 x 1.4 x 1.02mm
RS Stock No. 738-5361
Mfr. Part No.TLV431BFTA
$0.703
Each (In a Pack of 25)
units
1.24 - 18V SOT-23 Adjustable ±0.5 % Surface Mount Shunt 20mA 20 V 1.24 V 18 V 3 - - 3.04 x 1.4 x 1.02mm
RS Stock No. 522-9975
Mfr. Part No.REF195GPZ
$10.67
Each
units
5V PDIP Fixed ±0.04 % Through Hole Series 30mA 18 V 4.99 V 5.01 V 8 8 ppm/V 8 ppm/mA 9.27 x 7.24 x 3.43mm
RS Stock No. 145-6530
Mfr. Part No.LM385Z-2.5/NOPB
$0.57
Each (In a Box of 1800)
units
2.5V TO-92 Fixed ±3 % Through Hole Shunt 20mA - - - 3 - 20 mV 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.2mm
RS Stock No. 121-8695
Mfr. Part No.LM336Z-5.0/NOPB
$0.967
Each (In a Box of 1800)
units
5V TO-92 Fixed ±1.0 % Through Hole Shunt 10mA - 4.8 V 5.2 V 3 - 20 mV 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.2mm
RS Stock No. 923-3619
Mfr. Part No.REF102CU
$18.943
Each (In a Tube of 75)
units
10V SOIC Fixed ±0.025 % Surface Mount Series - 40 V 9.998 V 10.003 V 8 1 ppm/V 20 ppm/mA 4.9 x 3.91 x 1.58mm
RS Stock No. 761-6352
Mfr. Part No.LMV431AIMF/NOPB
$1.573
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
1.24 - 30V SOT-23 Adjustable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 15mA - 1.215 V 1.265 V 3 - - 2.92 x 1.3 x 0.93mm
RS Stock No. 922-2237
Mfr. Part No.LMV431AIMF/NOPB
$0.726
Each (On a Reel of 1000)
units
1.24 - 30V SOT-23 Adjustable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 15mA - 1.215 V 1.265 V 3 - - 2.92 x 1.3 x 0.93mm
RS Stock No. 660-5620
Mfr. Part No.REF102CU
$21.44
Each
units
10V SOIC Fixed ±0.025 % Surface Mount Series - 40 V 9.998 V 10.003 V 8 1 ppm/V 20 ppm/mA 4.9 x 3.91 x 1.58mm
RS Stock No. 779-8971
Mfr. Part No.LT1027BCN8-5#PBF
$18.29
Each
units
5V PDIP Fixed ±0.05 % Through Hole Series 15mA 40 V 4.9975 V 5.0025 V 8 25 ppm/V 8 ppm/mA 10.16 x 6.477 x 3.302mm
RS Stock No. 806-4049
Mfr. Part No.LM431SBCMFX
Brandonsemi
$0.286
Each (On a Tape of 100)
units
2.5 - 36V SOT-23F Adjustable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA - 2.5 (Cathode) V 36 V 3 - - 3 x 1.7 x 1mm
RS Stock No. 166-3103
Mfr. Part No.LM431SBCMFX
Brandonsemi
$0.127
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
2.5 - 36V SOT-23F Adjustable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA - 2.5 (Cathode) V 36 V 3 - - 3 x 1.7 x 1mm