Voltage References

Voltage references are electronic devices that provide a fixed output voltage. They provide a constant voltage regardless of external factors. This includes the load on the device, temperature or fluctuations in the power supply. Learn more in our Complete Guide to Voltage References.

Voltage references have different characteristics depending on their purpose. Voltage references used in laboratory applications are designed to have extremely high precision and accuracy, whereas those used as regulators for computer power supplies are much cheaper but less precise.

There are many different kinds of voltage references, generally categorised by type, tolerance, rated voltage, reference voltage and rated current. The most common tolerances are ±2%, ±1% and ±0.5%, but voltage references are available even up to ±40%.

Voltage reference ICs come in a standard semiconductor package, such as PDIP, SO, SOIC and SOT-23. The pin count may also be combined with the package type, for example SO-8.

Types of voltage references

  • Two-terminal shunt voltage reference
  • Three-terminal series voltage reference
  • Band-gap voltage reference
  • Low noise voltage reference
  • Micropower voltage reference

What are voltage references used for?

Voltage references can be used for a variety of different precision measurement and control systems such as power supplies in personal computers and analogue-to-digital converters. They are also used in scientific applications and in medical equipment where voltage variations need to be tested regularly. Voltage references are also used in battery-powered devices.


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Description Price Nominal Voltage Package Type Reference Type Initial Accuracy Mounting Type Topology Maximum Output Current Maximum Input Voltage Minimum Output Voltage Maximum Output Voltage Pin Count Line Regulation Load Regulation Dimensions
RS Stock No. 920-8969
Mfr. Part No.TL431ACZ
$0.145
Each (In a Bag of 2500)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Adjustable ±1.0 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 3 - - 4.7 x 3.7 x 4.4mm
RS Stock No. 168-6826
Mfr. Part No.TL431CDT
$0.188
Each (On a Reel of 2500)
units
2.5 - 36V SOIC Adjustable ±2.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 8 - - 4.9 x 3.9 x 1.25mm
RS Stock No. 168-6901
Mfr. Part No.TL431ACZ-AP
$0.186
Each (On a Tape of 2000)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92AP Adjustable ±1.0 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 3 - - 5 x 4 x 5mm
RS Stock No. 686-4768
Mfr. Part No.TL431ACZ
$0.795
Each (In a Pack of 50)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Adjustable ±1.0 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 3 - - 4.7 x 3.7 x 4.4mm
RS Stock No. 714-1114
Mfr. Part No.TL431CDT
$0.551
Each (In a Pack of 20)
units
2.5 - 36V SOIC Adjustable ±2.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 8 - - 4.9 x 3.9 x 1.25mm
RS Stock No. 714-7816
Mfr. Part No.TL431ACZ-AP
$0.496
Each (In a Pack of 50)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92AP Adjustable ±1.0 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 3 - - 5 x 4 x 5mm
RS Stock No. 165-8207
Mfr. Part No.TL1431ACL5T
$0.467
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
2.5 - 36V SOT-23 Programmable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA 36 V 2.5 V 36 V 5 - - 3.05 x 1.75 x 1.3mm
RS Stock No. 165-6770
Mfr. Part No.TS4040DILT-2.5
$0.375
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
2.5V SOT-23 Fixed ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 15mA - 2.475 V 2.525 V 3 - - 3.04 x 1.4 x 1.02mm
RS Stock No. 907-4700
Mfr. Part No.TL1431ACL5T
$1.002
Each (In a Pack of 20)
units
2.5 - 36V SOT-23 Programmable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA 36 V 2.5 V 36 V 5 - - 3.05 x 1.75 x 1.3mm
RS Stock No. 714-1105
Mfr. Part No.TL431ACDT
$0.458
Each (In a Pack of 20)
units
2.5 - 36V SOIC Adjustable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt - - - - 8 - - -
RS Stock No. 165-6542
Mfr. Part No.TS2431ILT
$0.268
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
2.5 - 24V SOT-23 Adjustable ±2.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA - 2.5 V 24 V 3 - - 3.04 x 1.4 x 1.02mm
RS Stock No. 795-8880
Mfr. Part No.TS3431CILT
$0.872
Each (On a Tape of 25)
units
1.24 - 24V SOT-23 Adjustable ±0.25 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA - 1.24 V 24 V 3 - - 3.04 x 1.4 x 1.02mm
RS Stock No. 168-6902
Mfr. Part No.TL431AIZT
$0.186
Each (On a Reel of 2000)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Adjustable ±1.0 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 3 - - 4.83 x 3.43 x 3.68mm
RS Stock No. 165-8238
Mfr. Part No.TL1431CCT
$0.449
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
2.5 - 36V SOT-323 Programmable ±2.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA 36 V 2.5 V 36 V 6 - - 2.2 x 1.35 x 1mm
RS Stock No. 145-8783
Mfr. Part No.TL431CZ
$0.169
Each (On a Reel of 2500)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Adjustable ±2.0 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 3 - - 4.7 x 3.7 x 4.4mm
RS Stock No. 907-4776
Mfr. Part No.TL1431CCT
$0.907
Each (In a Pack of 20)
units
2.5 - 36V SOT-323 Programmable ±2.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA 36 V 2.5 V 36 V 6 - - 2.2 x 1.35 x 1mm
RS Stock No. 168-7272
Mfr. Part No.TL1431AIDT
$0.255
Each (On a Reel of 2500)
units
2.5 - 36V SOIC Adjustable ±0.25 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA - 2.5 V 36 V 8 - - 5 x 4 x 1.5mm
RS Stock No. 168-7155
Mfr. Part No.TS431ILT
$0.347
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
1.24 - 6V SOT-23 Adjustable ±2.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 30mA - 1.215 V 1.265 V 5 - - 3 x 1.75 x 1.3mm
RS Stock No. 686-4765
Mfr. Part No.TS2431AILT
$0.676
Each (In a Pack of 25)
units
2.5 - 24V SOT-23 Adjustable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA 25 V 2.5 V 24 V 3 - - 2.9 x 1.3 x 0.95mm
RS Stock No. 168-8903
Mfr. Part No.TS432ILT
$0.462
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
1.24 - 10V SOT-23 Adjustable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt - - 1.24 V 10 V 3 - - 3.04 x 1.4 x 1.02mm