Bipolar Transistors

Bipolar Transistors are a solid state, three-pin devices made from three layers of silicon. A bipolar transistor is designed to amplify current, bipolar transistors can also function as a switch. There are two main types of transistor, PNP (positive negative positive) or NPN (negative positive-negative).

How a Bipolar transistor is made

Bipolar transistors are constructed by joining two signal diodes back to back creating two PN junctions connected in series, sharing a common P or N terminal. By nature, silicon does not normally conduct electricity well. However, when silicon is treated with certain chemicals or impurities we can make the material and electrons behave in a different way. This process is called doping. The doping process improves the semiconductors ability to conduct electricity.

How do bipolar transistors work?

Bipolar transistors have two possible functions, switching, and amplification. Due to the devices three layers of doped semiconductor material, supplying the transistor with a signal voltage enables the discrete component to act as an insulator or a conductor. This clever change provides the transistors with two basic functions, switching (digital) electronics or amplification (analog) electronics.

Transistors are available in panel, surface and through-hole mounting options in plastic package or metal can versions. All have three terminals or pins, the Base, the Collector, and the Emitter.

They are also available as;

  • Digital transistors - are made of a semiconductor material, usually silicon, which conducts the current (or electricity) with little resistance. They also tend to have at least three terminals for easy connection to an external circuit.
  • UJT transistors - constructed of a bar of lightly dope N type silicone with a small piece of heavily doped P type material attached to one side. Since the silicon bar is lightly dope it has very high resistance.

Applications of bipolar transistors?

Transistors are one of the most widely used discrete components in electronic designs and circuits. Transistors are used for the amplification of all types of electrical signals in circuits made up of individual components rather than ICs (integrated circuits).


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Description Price Transistor Type Maximum DC Collector Current Maximum Collector Emitter Voltage Package Type Mounting Type Maximum Power Dissipation Transistor Configuration Maximum Collector Base Voltage Maximum Emitter Base Voltage Maximum Operating Frequency Pin Count Number of Elements per Chip Dimensions Minimum Operating Temperature
RS Stock No. 274-942
Mfr. Part No.FZT753TA
$1.46
Each
units
PNP 2 A 100 V SOT-223 Surface Mount 2 W Single 120 V 5 V 140 MHz 3 + Tab 1 1.65 x 6.7 x 3.7mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 246-1873
Mfr. Part No.DTD114EKT146
BrandROHM
$0.578
Each (In a Pack of 5)
units
NPN - - SMT Surface Mount - Single - - - 3 1 2.9 x 1.6 x 1.1mm -
RS Stock No. 484-5188
Mfr. Part No.BCX55-16,115
BrandNexperia
$0.386
Each (In a Pack of 25)
units
NPN 1 A 60 V UPAK Surface Mount 1.25 W Single 60 V 5 V 180 MHz 4 1 1.6 x 4.6 x 2.6mm -65 °C
RS Stock No. 752-8136
Mfr. Part No.BFR181E6327HTSA1
BrandInfineon
$0.661
Each (On a Tape of 10)
units
NPN 20 mA 12 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 175 mW Single 20 V 2 V - 3 1 2.9 x 1.3 x 0.9mm -65 °C
RS Stock No. 781-5278
Mfr. Part No.SMMUN2111LT3G
$0.308
Each (In a Pack of 50)
units
PNP - 50 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 400 mW Single - - - 3 1 3.04 x 1.4 x 1.01mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 739-0313
Mfr. Part No.SS8050CBU
$0.363
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
NPN 1.5 A 25 V TO-92 Through Hole 1 W Single 40 V 6 V - 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm -
RS Stock No. 166-1787
Mfr. Part No.KSP44BU
$0.138
Each (In a Bag of 10000)
units
NPN 300 mA 400 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 500 V 6 V - 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm -
RS Stock No. 166-1316
Mfr. Part No.BCW30,215
BrandNexperia
$0.063
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
PNP 100 mA 32 V SOT-23 (TO-236AB) Surface Mount 250 mW Single 32 V 5 V 100 MHz 3 1 1 x 3 x 1.4mm -
RS Stock No. 166-3611
Mfr. Part No.KSA992FBU
$0.063
Each (In a Bag of 10000)
units
PNP 50 mA 120 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW Single -120 V -5 V 1 MHz 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm -
RS Stock No. 165-8254
Mfr. Part No.BFR106E6327HTSA1
BrandInfineon
$0.164
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
NPN 210 mA 16 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 700 mW Single 20 V 3 V 5 GHz 3 - 2.9 x 1.3 x 1mm -
RS Stock No. 806-2750
Mfr. Part No.KSC3503DSTU
$0.589
Each (In a Tube of 60)
units
NPN 100 mA 300 V TO-126 Through Hole 7 W Single 300 V 5 V 1 MHz 3 1 8 x 3.25 x 11mm -
RS Stock No. 922-7715
Mfr. Part No.FZT753TA
$0.584
Each (On a Reel of 1000)
units
PNP 2 A 100 V SOT-223 Surface Mount 2 W Single 120 V 5 V 140 MHz 3 + Tab 1 1.65 x 6.7 x 3.7mm -
RS Stock No. 145-3504
Mfr. Part No.MJE15029G
$2.12
Each (In a Tube of 50)
units
PNP 8 A 120 V TO-220AB Through Hole 50 W Single 120 V 5 V 30 MHz 3 1 9.28 x 10.28 x 4.82mm -
RS Stock No. 145-4605
Mfr. Part No.FJP5555TU
$1.323
Each (In a Tube of 50)
units
NPN 5 A 400 V TO-220 Through Hole 75 W Single 1050 V 14 V - 3 1 10.67 x 4.83 x 16.51mm -
RS Stock No. 739-0492
Mfr. Part No.PN2907ATA
$0.374
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
PNP 800 mA 60 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 60 V 5 V - 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 166-0561
Mfr. Part No.FMMTA42TA
$0.117
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
NPN 200 mA 300 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 330 mW Single 300 V 5 V 50 MHz 3 1 1 x 3.05 x 1.4mm -
RS Stock No. 162-9438
Mfr. Part No.MJW21193G
$6.05
Each (In a Tube of 30)
units
PNP 16 A 250 V TO-247 Through Hole 200 W Single 400 V dc 5 V 1 MHz 3 1 16.26 x 5.3 x 21.08mm -
RS Stock No. 168-6815
Mfr. Part No.MJE340
$0.861
Each (In a Tube of 50)
units
NPN 500 mA 300 V SOT-32 Through Hole 2.8 W Single 300 V 3 V - 3 1 10.8 x 7.8 x 2.7mm -
RS Stock No. 544-9422
Mfr. Part No.BC856BLT1G
$0.209
Each (In a Pack of 20)
units
PNP 100 mA 65 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 300 mW Single 80 V 5 V 100 MHz 3 1 0.94 x 2.9 x 1.3mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 124-9936
Mfr. Part No.2N3055AG
$6.374
Each (In a Tray of 100)
units
NPN 15 A 60 V TO-204 Through Hole 115 W Single 100 V 7 V 1 MHz 2 1 39.37 x 26.67 x 8.51mm -