Bipolar Transistors

Bipolar Transistors are a solid state, three-pin devices made from three layers of silicon. A bipolar transistor is designed to amplify current, bipolar transistors can also function as a switch. There are two main types of transistor, PNP (positive negative positive) or NPN (negative positive-negative).

How a Bipolar transistor is made

Bipolar transistors are constructed by joining two signal diodes back to back creating two PN junctions connected in series, sharing a common P or N terminal. By nature, silicon does not normally conduct electricity well. However, when silicon is treated with certain chemicals or impurities we can make the material and electrons behave in a different way. This process is called doping. The doping process improves the semiconductors ability to conduct electricity.

How do bipolar transistors work?

Bipolar transistors have two possible functions, switching, and amplification. Due to the devices three layers of doped semiconductor material, supplying the transistor with a signal voltage enables the discrete component to act as an insulator or a conductor. This clever change provides the transistors with two basic functions, switching (digital) electronics or amplification (analog) electronics.

Transistors are available in panel, surface and through-hole mounting options in plastic package or metal can versions. All have three terminals or pins, the Base, the Collector, and the Emitter.

They are also available as;

  • Digital transistors - are made of a semiconductor material, usually silicon, which conducts the current (or electricity) with little resistance. They also tend to have at least three terminals for easy connection to an external circuit.
  • UJT transistors - constructed of a bar of lightly dope N type silicone with a small piece of heavily doped P type material attached to one side. Since the silicon bar is lightly dope it has very high resistance.

Applications of bipolar transistors?

Transistors are one of the most widely used discrete components in electronic designs and circuits. Transistors are used for the amplification of all types of electrical signals in circuits made up of individual components rather than ICs (integrated circuits).


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Description Price Transistor Type Maximum DC Collector Current Maximum Collector Emitter Voltage Package Type Mounting Type Maximum Power Dissipation Transistor Configuration Maximum Collector Base Voltage Maximum Emitter Base Voltage Maximum Operating Frequency Pin Count Number of Elements per Chip Dimensions Minimum Operating Temperature
RS Stock No. 805-1100
Mfr. Part No.2N5551BU
$0.132
Each (In a Pack of 200)
units
NPN 600 mA 160 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 180 V 6 V 100 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 170-4161
Mfr. Part No.BC548A A1
$0.056
Each (On a Tape of 4000)
units
NPN 100 mA 30 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW Single 30 V 6 V - 3 1 5.1 x 4.1 x 4.7mm -
RS Stock No. 166-3209
Mfr. Part No.2N5551TF
$0.075
Each (On a Reel of 2000)
units
NPN 600 mA 160 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 180 V 6 V 100 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 166-3205
Mfr. Part No.2N5551TA
$0.072
Each (On a Tape of 2000)
units
NPN 600 mA 160 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 180 V 6 V 100 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 166-2959
Mfr. Part No.2N5551BU
$0.06
Each (In a Bag of 10000)
units
NPN 600 mA 160 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 180 V 6 V 100 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 177-5495
Mfr. Part No.2N2222ACSM
BrandSemelab
$30.801
Each (In a Tray of 100)
units
NPN 800 mA 40 V LCC 1 Surface Mount 500 mW Single 75 V 6 V 250 MHz 3 1 3.05 x 2.54 x 1.4mm -
RS Stock No. 545-2210
Mfr. Part No.2N3055G
$12.93
Each
units
NPN 15 A 60 V TO-204 Through Hole 115 W Single 100 V 7 V 2.5 MHz 3 1 8.51 x 39.37 x 26.67mm -65 °C
RS Stock No. 805-1104
Mfr. Part No.2N5551TA
$0.132
Each (In a Pack of 200)
units
NPN 600 mA 160 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 180 V 6 V 100 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 796-9710
Mfr. Part No.BC548A A1
$0.213
Each (In a Pack of 250)
units
NPN 100 mA 30 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW Single 30 V 6 V - 3 1 5.1 x 4.1 x 4.7mm -
RS Stock No. 761-3701
Mfr. Part No.MPSA42
$0.523
Each (In a Pack of 50)
units
NPN 500 mA 300 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 300 V 6 V 50 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 738-7571
Mfr. Part No.2N2222ACSM
BrandSemelab
$56.40
Each
units
NPN 800 mA 40 V LCC 1 Surface Mount 500 mW Single 75 V 6 V 250 MHz 3 1 3.05 x 2.54 x 1.4mm -65 °C
RS Stock No. 805-1113
Mfr. Part No.2N5551TF
$0.131
Each (In a Pack of 200)
units
NPN 600 mA 160 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 180 V 6 V 100 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 103-2964
Mfr. Part No.2N3055G
$7.853
Each (In a Tray of 100)
units
NPN 15 A 60 V TO-204AA Through Hole 115 W Single 100 V 7 V 2.5 MHz 2 1 8.51 x 39.37 x 26.67mm -
RS Stock No. 124-1357
Mfr. Part No.MPSA42
$0.164
Each (In a Bag of 1000)
units
NPN 500 mA 300 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 300 V 6 V 50 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 485-9727
Mfr. Part No.TIP3055
$2.144
Each (In a Pack of 5)
units
NPN 15 A 60 V TO-247 Through Hole 90 W Single 100 V - 3 MHz 3 1 20.15 x 15.75 x 5.15mm -65 °C
RS Stock No. 739-0385
Mfr. Part No.KSP2222ABU
$0.332
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
NPN 600 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 75 V 6 V - 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm -
RS Stock No. 124-1315
Mfr. Part No.KSP2222ABU
$0.081
Each (In a Bag of 1000)
units
NPN 600 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 75 V 6 V - 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm -
RS Stock No. 168-6168
Mfr. Part No.TIP3055
$1.197
Each (In a Tube of 30)
units
NPN 15 A 60 V TO-247 Through Hole 90 W Single 100 V - 3 MHz 3 1 20.15 x 15.75 x 5.15mm -
RS Stock No. 216-9404
Mfr. Part No.BC807-25W,115
BrandNexperia
$0.366
Each (In a Pack of 20)
units
PNP 500 mA 45 V UMT Surface Mount 200 mW Single 50 V 5 V 80 MHz 3 1 1 x 2.2 x 1.35mm -65 °C
RS Stock No. 121-6419
Mfr. Part No.MJL21193G
$6.68
Each (In a Tube of 25)
units
PNP 16 A 250 V TO-264 Through Hole 200 W Single 400 V dc 5 V 1 MHz 3 1 20.3 x 5.3 x 29mm -