Bipolar Transistors

Bipolar Transistors are a solid state, three-pin devices made from three layers of silicon. A bipolar transistor is designed to amplify current, bipolar transistors can also function as a switch. There are two main types of transistor, PNP (positive negative positive) or NPN (negative positive-negative).

How a Bipolar transistor is made

Bipolar transistors are constructed by joining two signal diodes back to back creating two PN junctions connected in series, sharing a common P or N terminal. By nature, silicon does not normally conduct electricity well. However, when silicon is treated with certain chemicals or impurities we can make the material and electrons behave in a different way. This process is called doping. The doping process improves the semiconductors ability to conduct electricity.

How do bipolar transistors work?

Bipolar transistors have two possible functions, switching, and amplification. Due to the devices three layers of doped semiconductor material, supplying the transistor with a signal voltage enables the discrete component to act as an insulator or a conductor. This clever change provides the transistors with two basic functions, switching (digital) electronics or amplification (analog) electronics.

Transistors are available in panel, surface and through-hole mounting options in plastic package or metal can versions. All have three terminals or pins, the Base, the Collector, and the Emitter.

They are also available as;

  • Digital transistors - are made of a semiconductor material, usually silicon, which conducts the current (or electricity) with little resistance. They also tend to have at least three terminals for easy connection to an external circuit.
  • UJT transistors - constructed of a bar of lightly dope N type silicone with a small piece of heavily doped P type material attached to one side. Since the silicon bar is lightly dope it has very high resistance.

Applications of bipolar transistors?

Transistors are one of the most widely used discrete components in electronic designs and circuits. Transistors are used for the amplification of all types of electrical signals in circuits made up of individual components rather than ICs (integrated circuits).


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Description Price Transistor Type Maximum DC Collector Current Maximum Collector Emitter Voltage Package Type Mounting Type Maximum Power Dissipation Transistor Configuration Maximum Collector Base Voltage Maximum Emitter Base Voltage Maximum Operating Frequency Pin Count Number of Elements per Chip Dimensions Minimum Operating Temperature
RS Stock No. 251-3564
Mfr. Part No.TIP35C
$3.74
Each
units
NPN 25 A 100 V TO-247 Through Hole 125 W Single 100 V 5 V 3 MHz 3 1 20.15 x 15.75 x 5.15mm -65 °C
RS Stock No. 145-4345
Mfr. Part No.BD13916STU
$0.711
Each (In a Tube of 60)
units
NPN 1.5 A 80 V TO-126 Through Hole 12.5 W Single 80 V 5 V - 3 1 8 x 3.25 x 11mm -
RS Stock No. 216-9404
Mfr. Part No.BC807-25W,115
BrandNexperia
$0.366
Each (In a Pack of 20)
units
PNP 500 mA 45 V UMT Surface Mount 200 mW Single 50 V 5 V 80 MHz 3 1 1 x 2.2 x 1.35mm -65 °C
RS Stock No. 121-6419
Mfr. Part No.MJL21193G
$6.68
Each (In a Tube of 25)
units
PNP 16 A 250 V TO-264 Through Hole 200 W Single 400 V dc 5 V 1 MHz 3 1 20.3 x 5.3 x 29mm -
RS Stock No. 168-6056
Mfr. Part No.TIP35C
$2.589
Each (In a Tube of 30)
units
NPN 25 A 100 V TO-247 Through Hole 125 W Single 100 V 5 V 3 MHz 3 1 20.15 x 15.75 x 5.15mm -
RS Stock No. 166-1264
Mfr. Part No.BC807-25W,115
BrandNexperia
$0.071
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
PNP 500 mA 45 V UMT Surface Mount 200 mW Single 50 V 5 V 80 MHz 3 1 1 x 2.2 x 1.35mm -
RS Stock No. 145-3097
Mfr. Part No.MMUN2211LT1G
$0.03
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
NPN - 50 V SOT-23 Surface Mount - Single - - - 3 1 2.9 x 1.3 x 0.94mm -
RS Stock No. 807-0899
Mfr. Part No.FJP13009TU
$1.575
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
NPN 12 A 400 V TO-220 Through Hole 100 W Single 700 V 9 V 4 MHz 3 1 10.67 x 4.83 x 16.51mm -
RS Stock No. 166-3204
Mfr. Part No.2N4401TF
$0.075
Each (On a Reel of 2000)
units
NPN 600 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 60 V 6 V 250 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 671-1113
Mfr. Part No.BC547BTA
$0.274
Each (In a Pack of 25)
units
NPN 100 mA 45 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW Single 50 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.33 x 5.2 x 4.19mm -65 °C
RS Stock No. 166-2768
Mfr. Part No.FJP13009H2TU
$1.428
Each (In a Tube of 50)
units
NPN 12 A 400 V TO-220 Through Hole 100 W Single 700 V 9 V - 3 1 9.9 x 4.5 x 9.2mm -
RS Stock No. 739-0439
Mfr. Part No.2N4401BU
$0.363
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
NPN 600 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 60 V 6 V - 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 803-1087
Mfr. Part No.BC547BTF
$0.114
Each (In a Pack of 200)
units
NPN 100 mA 45 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW Single 50 V 6 V 1 MHz 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm -
RS Stock No. 124-1730
Mfr. Part No.BC547BTA
$0.057
Each (On a Reel of 2000)
units
NPN 100 mA 45 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW Single 50 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.33 x 5.2 x 4.19mm -
RS Stock No. 166-2988
Mfr. Part No.BC547B
$0.11
Each (In a Bag of 10000)
units
NPN 100 mA 45 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW Single 50 V 6 V 1 MHz 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm -
RS Stock No. 739-0394
Mfr. Part No.2N4401TA
$0.487
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
NPN 600 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 60 V 6 V - 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 145-5441
Mfr. Part No.FJP13009TU
$1.57
Each (In a Tube of 50)
units
NPN 12 A 400 V TO-220 Through Hole 100 W Single 700 V 9 V 4 MHz 3 1 10.67 x 4.83 x 16.51mm -
RS Stock No. 739-0420
Mfr. Part No.FJP13009H2TU
$2.30
Each (In a Pack of 5)
units
NPN 12 A 400 V TO-220 Through Hole 100 W Single 700 V 9 V - 3 1 9.9 x 4.5 x 9.2mm -
RS Stock No. 145-5498
Mfr. Part No.2N4401TAR
$0.071
Each (On a Tape of 2000)
units
NPN 600 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 60 V 6 V 250 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 761-9828
Mfr. Part No.BC547B
$0.479
Each (In a Pack of 50)
units
NPN 100 mA 45 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW Single 50 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm -