Bipolar Transistors

Bipolar Transistors are a solid state, three-pin devices made from three layers of silicon. A bipolar transistor is designed to amplify current, bipolar transistors can also function as a switch. There are two main types of transistor, PNP (positive negative positive) or NPN (negative positive-negative).

How a Bipolar transistor is made

Bipolar transistors are constructed by joining two signal diodes back to back creating two PN junctions connected in series, sharing a common P or N terminal. By nature, silicon does not normally conduct electricity well. However, when silicon is treated with certain chemicals or impurities we can make the material and electrons behave in a different way. This process is called doping. The doping process improves the semiconductors ability to conduct electricity.

How do bipolar transistors work?

Bipolar transistors have two possible functions, switching, and amplification. Due to the devices three layers of doped semiconductor material, supplying the transistor with a signal voltage enables the discrete component to act as an insulator or a conductor. This clever change provides the transistors with two basic functions, switching (digital) electronics or amplification (analog) electronics.

Transistors are available in panel, surface and through-hole mounting options in plastic package or metal can versions. All have three terminals or pins, the Base, the Collector, and the Emitter.

They are also available as;

  • Digital transistors - are made of a semiconductor material, usually silicon, which conducts the current (or electricity) with little resistance. They also tend to have at least three terminals for easy connection to an external circuit.
  • UJT transistors - constructed of a bar of lightly dope N type silicone with a small piece of heavily doped P type material attached to one side. Since the silicon bar is lightly dope it has very high resistance.

Applications of bipolar transistors?

Transistors are one of the most widely used discrete components in electronic designs and circuits. Transistors are used for the amplification of all types of electrical signals in circuits made up of individual components rather than ICs (integrated circuits).


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Description Price Transistor Type Maximum DC Collector Current Maximum Collector Emitter Voltage Package Type Mounting Type Maximum Power Dissipation Transistor Configuration Maximum Collector Base Voltage Maximum Emitter Base Voltage Maximum Operating Frequency Pin Count Number of Elements per Chip Dimensions Minimum Operating Temperature
RS Stock No. 145-5383
Mfr. Part No.PN2222ATA
$0.081
Each (On a Tape of 2000)
units
NPN 1 A 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 75 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 739-0381
Mfr. Part No.PN2222ATA
$0.338
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
NPN 1 A 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 75 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 805-1056
Mfr. Part No.2N3904TFR
$0.097
Each (In a Pack of 200)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 60 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 124-1317
Mfr. Part No.2N3904TA
$0.072
Each (On a Reel of 2000)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 60 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 843-1575
Mfr. Part No.2N3904BU
$0.239
Each (In a Pack of 50)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 60 V 6 V 100 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 739-0442
Mfr. Part No.2N3904TA
$0.273
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 60 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 842-8015
Mfr. Part No.2N3904BU
$0.067
Each (In a Bag of 1000)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 60 V 6 V 100 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 805-1043
Mfr. Part No.2N3904TAR
$0.113
Each (In a Pack of 200)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 60 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 772-9244
Mfr. Part No.FJB3307DTM
$1.318
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
NPN 8 A 400 V D2PAK (TO-263) Surface Mount 80 W Single 700 V 9 V 1 MHz 3 1 10.67 x 9.65 x 4.83mm -
RS Stock No. 166-3044
Mfr. Part No.FJB3307DTM
$0.737
Each (On a Reel of 800)
units
NPN 8 A 400 V D2PAK (TO-263) Surface Mount 80 W Single 700 V 9 V 1 MHz 3 1 10.67 x 9.65 x 4.83mm -
RS Stock No. 168-6165
Mfr. Part No.TIP2955
$2.71
Each (In a Tube of 30)
units
PNP 15 A 60 V TO-247 Through Hole 90 W Single 100 V - 3 MHz 3 1 20.15 x 15.75 x 5.15mm -
RS Stock No. 485-9705
Mfr. Part No.TIP2955
$3.098
Each (In a Pack of 5)
units
PNP 15 A 60 V TO-247 Through Hole 90 W Single 100 V - 3 MHz 3 1 20.15 x 15.75 x 5.15mm -65 °C
RS Stock No. 103-2936
Mfr. Part No.MJE15031G
$2.268
Each (In a Tube of 50)
units
PNP 8 A 150 V TO-220AB Through Hole 50 W Single 150 V 5 V 30 MHz 3 1 9.28 x 10.28 x 4.82mm -
RS Stock No. 544-9618
Mfr. Part No.MJE15031G
$2.86
Each
units
PNP 8 A 150 V TO-220AB Through Hole 50 W Single 150 V 5 V 30 MHz 3 1 9.28 x 10.28 x 4.82mm -65 °C
RS Stock No. 124-1316
Mfr. Part No.FJA13009TU
$2.447
Each (In a Tube of 30)
units
NPN 12 A 400 V TO-3P Through Hole 130 W Single 700 V 9 V - 3 1 15.8 x 5 x 20.1mm -
RS Stock No. 739-0401
Mfr. Part No.FJA13009TU
$3.684
Each (In a Pack of 5)
units
NPN 12 A 400 V TO-3P Through Hole 130 W Single 700 V 9 V - 3 1 15.8 x 5 x 20.1mm -
RS Stock No. 168-6055
Mfr. Part No.TIP36C
$3.245
Each (In a Tube of 30)
units
PNP 25 A 100 V TO-247 Through Hole 125 W Single 100 V 5 V 3 MHz 3 1 20.15 x 15.75 x 5.15mm -
RS Stock No. 169-8618
Mfr. Part No.BC556ABU
$0.075
Each (In a Bag of 1000)
units
PNP 100 mA 65 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW Single -80 V -5 V 10 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 251-3558
Mfr. Part No.TIP36C
$3.82
Each (In a Pack of 5)
units
PNP 25 A 100 V TO-247 Through Hole 125 W Single 100 V 5 V 3 MHz 3 1 20.15 x 15.75 x 5.15mm -65 °C
RS Stock No. 803-1128
Mfr. Part No.BC556ABU
$0.107
Each (In a Pack of 200)
units
PNP 100 mA 65 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW Single -80 V -5 V 10 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -