Bipolar Transistors

Bipolar Transistors are a solid state, three-pin devices made from three layers of silicon. A bipolar transistor is designed to amplify current, bipolar transistors can also function as a switch. There are two main types of transistor, PNP (positive negative positive) or NPN (negative positive-negative).

How a Bipolar transistor is made

Bipolar transistors are constructed by joining two signal diodes back to back creating two PN junctions connected in series, sharing a common P or N terminal. By nature, silicon does not normally conduct electricity well. However, when silicon is treated with certain chemicals or impurities we can make the material and electrons behave in a different way. This process is called doping. The doping process improves the semiconductors ability to conduct electricity.

How do bipolar transistors work?

Bipolar transistors have two possible functions, switching, and amplification. Due to the devices three layers of doped semiconductor material, supplying the transistor with a signal voltage enables the discrete component to act as an insulator or a conductor. This clever change provides the transistors with two basic functions, switching (digital) electronics or amplification (analog) electronics.

Transistors are available in panel, surface and through-hole mounting options in plastic package or metal can versions. All have three terminals or pins, the Base, the Collector, and the Emitter.

They are also available as;

  • Digital transistors - are made of a semiconductor material, usually silicon, which conducts the current (or electricity) with little resistance. They also tend to have at least three terminals for easy connection to an external circuit.
  • UJT transistors - constructed of a bar of lightly dope N type silicone with a small piece of heavily doped P type material attached to one side. Since the silicon bar is lightly dope it has very high resistance.

Applications of bipolar transistors?

Transistors are one of the most widely used discrete components in electronic designs and circuits. Transistors are used for the amplification of all types of electrical signals in circuits made up of individual components rather than ICs (integrated circuits).


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Description Price Transistor Type Maximum DC Collector Current Maximum Collector Emitter Voltage Package Type Mounting Type Maximum Power Dissipation Transistor Configuration Maximum Collector Base Voltage Maximum Emitter Base Voltage Maximum Operating Frequency Pin Count Number of Elements per Chip Dimensions Minimum Operating Temperature
RS Stock No. 170-4159
Mfr. Part No.BC547A A1
$0.056
Each (On a Tape of 4000)
units
NPN 100 mA 45 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW Single 50 V 6 V - 3 1 5.1 x 4.1 x 4.7mm -
RS Stock No. 760-3117
Mfr. Part No.2SA1943-O(Q)
BrandToshiba
$5.94
Each
units
PNP 15 A 230 V TO-3PL Through Hole 150 W Single -230 V -5 V 30 MHz 3 1 20.5 x 5.2 x 26mm -
RS Stock No. 796-9694
Mfr. Part No.BC546C A1
$0.213
Each (In a Pack of 250)
units
NPN 100 mA 65 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW Single 80 V 6 V - 3 1 5.1 x 4.1 x 4.7mm -
RS Stock No. 178-1437
Mfr. Part No.TIP31C
$0.919
Each (In a Tube of 50)
units
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
RS Stock No. 146-2332
Mfr. Part No.BC546C A1
$0.06
Each (On a Tape of 4000)
units
NPN 100 mA 65 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW Single 80 V 6 V - 3 1 5.1 x 4.1 x 4.7mm -
RS Stock No. 177-5497
Mfr. Part No.2N2222ADCSM
BrandSemelab
$56.281
Each (In a Tray of 100)
units
NPN 800 mA 50 V LCC 2 Surface Mount 500 mW Isolated 75 V 6 V 250 MHz 6 2 6.22 x 4.32 x 1.4mm -
RS Stock No. 320-7737
Mfr. Part No.2SA1037AKT146Q/R
BrandROHM
$0.128
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
PNP 150 mA 50 V SOT-346 (SC-59) Surface Mount 200 mW Single -60 V -6 V 140 MHz 3 1 2.9 x 1.6 x 1.1mm -
RS Stock No. 923-1335
Mfr. Part No.HFA3127BZ
$14.661
Each (In a Tube of 48)
units
NPN 65 mA 8 V SOIC Surface Mount 150 mW Isolated 12 V 5.5 V 8000 MHz 16 5 1.5 x 10 x 4mm -
RS Stock No. 890-2689
Mfr. Part No.2SC5200N(S1,E,S)
BrandToshiba
$3.412
Each (In a Pack of 5)
units
NPN 15 A 230 V TO-3P Through Hole 150 W Single 230 V 5 V - 3 1 15.5 x 4.5 x 20mm -
RS Stock No. 263-908
Mfr. Part No.ZTX550
$1.212
Each (In a Pack of 5)
units
PNP 1 A 45 V E-Line Through Hole 1 W Single 60 V 5 V 150 MHz 3 1 4.01 x 4.77 x 2.41mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 738-7575
Mfr. Part No.2N2222ADCSM
BrandSemelab
$73.34
Each
units
NPN 800 mA 50 V LCC 2 Surface Mount 500 mW Isolated 75 V 6 V 250 MHz 6 2 6.22 x 4.32 x 1.4mm -65 °C
RS Stock No. 122-0916
Mfr. Part No.DDTD113ZC-7-F
$0.074
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
NPN - - SOT-23 Surface Mount 200 mW Single - - - 3 1 3 x 1.4 x 1.1mm -
RS Stock No. 796-9704
Mfr. Part No.BC547A A1
$0.197
Each (In a Pack of 250)
units
NPN 100 mA 45 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW Single 50 V 6 V - 3 1 5.1 x 4.1 x 4.7mm -
RS Stock No. 826-9364
Mfr. Part No.BFR193WH6327XTSA1
BrandInfineon
$0.264
Each (In a Pack of 100)
units
NPN 80 mA 12 V SOT-323 (SC-70) Surface Mount 580 mW Single 20 V 2 V 8 GHz 3 1 2 x 1.25 x 0.8mm -
RS Stock No. 445-2219
Mfr. Part No.BFR92PE6327HTSA1
BrandInfineon
$0.537
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
NPN 45 mA 15 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 280 mW Single 20 V 2.5 V 5000 MHz 3 1 1 x 2.9 x 1.3mm -65 °C
RS Stock No. 168-8859
Mfr. Part No.HD1750FX
$4.48
Each (In a Tube of 30)
units
NPN 24 A 800 V ISOWATT218FX Through Hole 75 W Single - 10 V - 3 1 15.7 x 5.7 x 26.7mm -
RS Stock No. 669-7593
Mfr. Part No.FZT957TA
$1.612
Each (In a Pack of 5)
units
PNP 1 A 300 V SOT-223 Surface Mount 3 W Single 300 V 6 V 85 MHz 3 + Tab 1 1.65 x 6.7 x 3.7mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 122-0140
Mfr. Part No.MJ15015G
$7.13
Each (In a Tray of 100)
units
NPN 15 A 120 V TO-204AA Through Hole 180 W Single 200 V 7 V 1 MHz 2 1 39.37 x 26.67 x 8.51mm -
RS Stock No. 103-2931
Mfr. Part No.BC846BLT1G
$0.038
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
NPN 100 mA 65 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 300 mW Single 80 V 6 V 100 MHz 3 1 0.94 x 2.9 x 1.3mm -
RS Stock No. 436-8079
Mfr. Part No.BFS20,215
BrandNexperia
$0.476
Each (In a Pack of 25)
units
NPN 25 mA 20 V SOT-23 (TO-236AB) Surface Mount 250 mW Single 30 V 4 V 450 MHz 3 1 1 x 3 x 1.4mm -65 °C